Groundhog Day 2005 in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Significance||Predicts the arrival of spring|
|Celebrations||Announcing whether a groundhog sees its shadow after it emerges from its burrow|
Groundhog Day (Pennsylvania German: Grundsaudaag, Murmeltiertag) is a day celebrated on February 2. According to folklore, if it is cloudy when a groundhog emerges from its burrow on this day, then spring will come early; if it is sunny, the groundhog will supposedly see its shadow and retreat back into its burrow, and the winter weather will continue for six more weeks.1
Modern customs of the holiday involve celebrations where early morning festivals are held to watch the groundhog emerging from its burrow.
In southeastern Pennsylvania, Groundhog Lodges (Grundsow Lodges) celebrate the holiday with fersommlinge,2 social events in which food is served, speeches are made, and one or more g'spiel (plays or skits) are performed for entertainment. The Pennsylvania German dialect is the only language spoken at the event, and those who speak English pay a penalty, usually in the form of a nickel, dime, or quarter per word spoken, with the money put into a bowl in the center of the table.3
The largest Groundhog Day celebration is held in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania. Groundhog Day, already a widely recognized and popular tradition,4 received widespread attention as a result of the 1993 film Groundhog Day, which was set in Punxsutawney, PA (though filmed primarily in Woodstock, IL) and portrayed Punxsutawney Phil.5
The celebration, which began as a Pennsylvania German custom in southeastern and central Pennsylvania in the 18th and 19th centuries, has its origins in ancient European weather lore, wherein a badger or sacred bear is the prognosticator as opposed to a groundhog.6 It also bears similarities to the Pagan festival of Imbolc, the seasonal turning point of the Celtic calendar, which is celebrated on February 1 and also involves weather prognostication7 and to St. Swithun's Day in July.
In Scotland, the poem:
If Candle-mas Day is bright and clear,
There'll be two winters in the year.
An English poem:
If Candle mas be fair and bright,
Winter has another flight.
If Candlemas brings clouds and rain,
Winter will not come again.
In western countries in the Northern Hemisphere, the official first day of spring is almost seven weeks (46–48 days) after Groundhog Day, on March 20 or March 21. The custom could have been a folk embodiment of the confusion created by the collision of two calendrical systems. Some ancient traditions marked the change of season at cross-quarter days such as Imbolc when daylight first makes significant progress against the night. Other traditions held that spring did not begin until the length of daylight overtook night at the Vernal Equinox. So an arbiter, the groundhog/hedgehog, was incorporated as a yearly custom to settle the two traditions. Sometimes spring begins at Imbolc, and sometimes winter lasts six more weeks until the equinox.10
The largest Groundhog Day celebration is held in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, where crowds as large as 40,00011 have gathered to celebrate the holiday since at least 1886.12 Other celebrations of note in Pennsylvania take place in Quarryville in Lancaster County,13 the Anthracite Region of Schuylkill County,14 the Sinnamahoning Valley15 and Bucks County.16
Outside of Pennsylvania, notable celebrations occur in Wiarton, Ontario, and Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia.17, Val d'Espoir near Percé, Quebec and Winnipeg, Manitoba as well as the Frederick and Hagerstown areas of Maryland, Marion, Ohio,18 the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia,17 Woodstock, Illinois,19 Lilburn, Georgia,20 among the Amish populations of over twenty states. The University of Dallas in Irving, Texas, has Groundhog Day as an official university holiday and organizes a large-scale celebration every year. It is claimed to be the second largest Groundhog celebration in the world.21
|2013||Early spring22||Jimmy the Groundhog||Sun Prairie, Wisconsin|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter23||Flatiron Freddy||Boulder, Colorado|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter23||Malverne Mel||Malverne, New York|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter23||Stormy Marmot||Aurora, Colorado|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter24||Shubenacadie Sam||Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter24||Fred||Val d'Espoir, Quebec|
|2013||Early spring24||Wiarton Willie||Wiarton, Ontario|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter24||Manitoba Merv||Winnipeg, Manitoba|
|2013||Early spring24||Winnipeg Willow||Winnipeg, Manitoba|
|2013||Early spring25||Potomac Phil||Washington, DC|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter26||Western Maryland Murray||Cumberland, Maryland|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter27||Octorara Orphie||Quarryville, Pennsylvania|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter28||Poor Richard||York, Pennsylvania|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter28||Dover Doug||Dover, Pennsylvania|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter28||Susquehanna Sherman||Mount Wolf, Pennsylvania|
|2013||6 more weeks of winter29||Pine Grove Grover||Pine Grove, Pennsylvania|
|2013||Early spring30||Nibbles||Asheville, North Carolina|
|2013||Early spring31||Dunkirk Dave||Dunkirk, New York|
|2013||Early spring32||Woody||Howell, Michigan|
|2013||Early spring33||Punxsutawney Phil||Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania|
|2012||Early spring34||Stormy Marmot||Aurora, Colorado|
|2012||Early spring35||Woody||Howell, Michigan|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter36||Western Maryland Murray||Cumberland, Maryland|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter37||Grady the Groundhog||Chimney Rock, North Carolina|
|2012||Early spring37||Nibbles||Asheville, North Carolina|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter38||Queen Charlotte||Charlotte, North Carolina|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter39||Sir Walter Wally||Raleigh, North Carolina|
|2012||Early spring39||Mortimer||Garner, North Carolina|
|2012||Early spring40||Chattanooga Chuck||Chattanooga, Tennessee|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter41||Uni||Myerstown, Pennsylvania|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter42||Mount Joy Minnie||Lancaster County, Pennsylvania|
|2012||Early spring42||Patty Pagoda||Reading, Pennsylvania|
|2012||Early spring43||French Creek Freddie||French Creek, West Virginia|
|2012||Early spring44||Woodstock Willie||Woodstock, Illinois|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter45||Balzac Billy||Balzac, Alberta|
|2012||Early spring46||Sir Thomas Hastings||Hastings, Nebraska|
|2012||Early spring47||Gus||Athens, Georgia|
|2012||Early spring48||Octoraro Orphie||Quarryville, Pennsylvania|
|2012||Early spring49||Dunkirk Dave||Dunkirk, New York|
|2012||Early spring50||Chuckles||Manchester, Connecticut|
|2012||Early spring51||Wynter the Groundhog||Milwaukee, Wisconsin|
|2012||Early spring52||Dover Doug||Dover, Pennsylvania|
|2012||Early spring52||Susquehanna Sherman||Mount Wolf, Pennsylvania|
|2012||Early spring52||Poor Richard||York, Pennsylvania|
|2012||Early spring53||Jimmy the Groundhog||Sun Prairie, Wisconsin|
|2012||Early spring54||Wiarton Willie||Wiarton, Ontario|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter55||Fred||Val d'Espoir, Quebec|
|2012||Early spring56||General Beauregard Lee||Lilburn, Georgia|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter57||Malverne Mel||Malverne, New York|
|2012||Early spring58||Holtsville Hal||Holtsville, New York|
|2012||Early spring59||Buckeye Chuck||Marion, Ohio|
|2012||Early spring60||Staten Island Chuck||Staten Island (New York City)|
|2012||Early spring61||Shubenacadie Sam||Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia|
|2012||6 more weeks of winter||Punxsutawney Phil||Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter62||Stormy Marmot||Aurora, Colorado|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter35||Woody||Howell, Michigan|
|2011||Early spring63||French Creek Freddie||French Creek, West Virginia|
|2011||Early spring64||Tumbleweed||Brookfield, Illinois|
|2011||Early spring65||Gus||Athens, Georgia|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter66||Octoraro Orphie||Quarryville, Pennsylvania|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter67||Balzac Billy||Balzac, Alberta|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter68||Sir Walter Wally||Raleigh, North Carolina|
|2011||Early spring69||Grady the Groundhog||Chimney Rock, North Carolina|
|2011||Early spring70||Chuckles||Manchester, Connecticut|
|2011||Early spring71||Susquehanna Sherman||Mount Wolf, Pennsylvania|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter71||Poor Richard||York, Pennsylvania|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter71||Dover Doug||Dover, Pennsylvania|
|2011||Early spring72||Malverne Mel||Malverne, New York|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter73||Holtsville Hal||Holtsville, New York|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter74||Uni||Myerstown, Pennsylvania|
|2011||Early spring75||Wiarton Willie||Wiarton, Ontario|
|2011||Early spring75||Shubenacadie Sam||Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia|
|2011||Early spring76||Jimmy the Groundhog||Sun Prairie, Wisconsin|
|2011||6 more weeks of winter77||Western Maryland Murray||Cumberland, Maryland|
|2011||Early spring78||Staten Island Chuck||Staten Island (New York City)|
|2011||Early spring79||Buckeye Chuck||Marion, Ohio|
|2011||Early spring80||Dunkirk Dave||Dunkirk, New York|
|2011||Early spring81||General Beauregard Lee||Lilburn, Georgia|
|2011||Early spring82||Punxsutawney Phil||Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania|
|2010||Early spring83||Gus||Athens, Georgia|
|2010||Early spring83||Queen Charlotte||Charlotte, North Carolina|
|2010||Early spring84||Octoraro Orphie||Quarryville, Pennsylvania|
|2010||Early spring85||Sir Walter Wally||Raleigh, North Carolina|
|2010||Early spring86||Jimmy the Groundhog||Sun Prairie, Wisconsin|
|2010||Early spring87||General Beauregard Lee||Lilburn, Georgia|
|2010||6 more weeks of winter88||Smith Lake Jake||Graysville, Alabama|
|2010||Early spring89||Staten Island Chuck||Staten Island|
|2010||Early spring90||Woodstock Willie||Woodstock, Illinois|
|2010||6 more weeks of winter91||Wiarton Willie||Wiarton, Ontario|
|2010||6 more weeks of winter||Punxsutawney Phil||Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania|
|2010||Early spring92||Uni||Myerstown, Pennsylvania|
|2010||6 more weeks of winter||Poor Richard||York, Pennsylvania|
|2010||Early spring93||Dunkirk Dave||Dunkirk, New York|
|2010||Early spring94||Buckeye Chuck||Marion, Ohio|
|2010||Early spring95||Balzac Billy||Balzac, Alberta|
|2010||6 more weeks of winter||Shubenacadie Sam||Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia|
|2010||Early spring96||French Creek Freddie||French Creek, West Virginia|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter83||Gus||Athens, Georgia|
|2009||Early spring97||Queen Charlotte||Charlotte, North Carolina|
|2009||Early spring98||French Creek Freddie||French Creek, West Virginia|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter99||Buckeye Chuck||Marion, Ohio|
|2009||Early spring100||Malverne Mel||Malverne, New York|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter101||Woodstock Willie||Woodstock, Illinois|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter102||Jimmy the Groundhog||Sun Prairie, Wisconsin|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter103||Octoraro Orphie||Quarryville, Pennsylvania|
|2009||Early spring104||Staten Island Chuck||Staten Island (New York City)|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter105||Wiarton Willie||Wiarton, Ontario|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter105||Shubenacadie Sam||Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia|
|2009||6 more weeks of winter106||Punxsutawney Phil||Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania|
|2009||Early spring107||Dunkirk Dave||Dunkirk, New York|
|2008||6 more weeks of winter108||Smith Lake Jake||Graysville, Alabama|
|2008||Early spring109||Jimmy the Groundhog||Sun Prairie, Wisconsin|
|2008||Early spring110||Dunkirk Dave||Dunkirk, New York|
|2008||Early spring111||Balzac Billy||Balzac, Alberta|
|2008||6 more weeks of winter112||Sir Walter Wally||Raleigh, North Carolina|
|2008||Early spring111||Wiarton Willie||Wiarton, Ontario|
|2008||Early spring113||General Beauregard Lee||Lilburn, Georgia|
|2008||6 more weeks of winter113||Queen Charlotte||Charlotte, North Carolina|
|2008||6 more weeks of winter114||Punxsutawney Phil||Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania|
|2008||Early spring115||Malverne Mel||Malverne, New York|
|2008||Early spring115||Staten Island Chuck||Staten Island (New York City)|
|2008||Early spring116||Buckeye Chuck||Marion, Ohio|
According to Groundhog Day organizers, the rodents' forecasts are accurate 75% to 90% of the time.117 However, a Canadian study for 13 cities in the past 30 to 40 years found that the weather patterns predicted on Groundhog Day were only 37% accurate over that time period—a value not significant compared to the 33% that could occur by chance.117 According to the StormFax Weather Almanac and records kept since 1887, Punxsutawney Phil's weather predictions have been correct 39% of the time.118 The National Climatic Data Center has described the forecasts as "on average, inaccurate" and stated that "The groundhog has shown no talent for predicting the arrival of spring, especially in recent years."119
- At the end of Disney's 1930 Silly Symphonies short film Winter, Mr. Groundhog the Weather Prophet comes out of his hole to determine whether or not there will be more winter. At first, he does not see his shadow, but the clouds clear and his shadow appears, causing him to run back inside. At this point, the winds picks up again and winter continues.
- The 1941 Woody Woodpecker short Pantry Panic portrays the groundhog as a weather forecaster, although in this case he forecasts the timing of the beginning of winter, not the end of it.
- The 1947 Warner Bros. cartoon One Meat Brawl features Grover Groundhog singing the "Groundhog Song" with music by Carl W. Stalling and lyrics by Warren Foster.120
- In the 1979 Rankin-Bass Christmas TV special Jack Frost, a crucial plot point in the story involves Jack casting his own shadow on Groundhog Day for six more weeks of winter. At the end of the story it is revealed that the narrator (voiced by Buddy Hackett) is the groundhog.
- * From the 1990 album Frizzle Fry by the San Francisco area trio Primus, Ground Hog's Day appears as the second track. The song is set on Ground Hog's day, from the anthropomorphic perspective of the groundhog. The song's theme deals with growth, perseverance, and fresh starts.
- The 1993 comedy movie Groundhog Day takes place in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania on this day (although the majority of the movie was actually filmed in Woodstock, Illinois). The main character (played by Bill Murray) is forced to relive the day over and over again until he can learn to give up his selfishness and become a better person.121 In popular culture, the phrase "Groundhog Day" has come to represent going through a phenomenon over and over until one spiritually transcends it.122
- In "Franklin and the Grump" from Franklin (Season 3, 2000), the character Mr. Groundhog was an anthropomorphic groundhog with a great interest in meteorology who didn't want to participate in Groundhog Day anymore because there were always those who were upset regardless of what he predicted. He "officially canceled" the holiday, but the title character told his friends and family about the problem and the entire community gathered to give him a day just for him. Mr. Groundhog was later featured as more regular character in the series.
- In Disney's 2006 film Bambi II, Bambi accompanies his friends Thumper and Flower to go and see the Groundhog, whose shadow will foretell if winter will end soon.
- In Dreamwork's 2012 film Rise of the Guardians, when the Man in the Moon is about to choose a new Guardian, Bunnymund hopes that it isn't the Groundhog.
A similar custom is celebrated among Orthodox Christians in Serbia on February 15 (February 2 according to local Julian calendar) during the feast of celebration of Sretenje or The Meeting of the Lord. It is believed that on this day the bear will awake from winter dormancy, and if in this sleepy and confused state it sees (meets) its own shadow, it will get scared and go back to sleep for an additional 40 days, thus prolonging the winter. Thus, if it is sunny on Sretenje, it is the sign that the winter is not over yet. If it is cloudy, it is a good sign that the winter is about to end.
In Germany, June 27 is "Siebenschläfertag" (Seven Sleepers Day). If it rains that day, the rest of summer is supposedly going to be rainy. While it might seem to refer to the "Siebenschläfer" squirrel (Glis Glis), also known as the "edible dormouse", it actually commemorates the Seven Sleepers (the actual commemoration day is July 25).
In the United Kingdom, July 15 is known as St. Swithun's day. It was traditionally believed if it rained on that day, it would rain for the next 40 days and nights.
- Cohen, p. 57.
- Yoder, p. xii.
- Rosenberger, Homer Tope (1966). The Pennsylvania Germans: 1891–1965. Lancaster, PA: Pennsylvania German Society. pp. 194–199. OCLC 1745108.
- "Pennsylvania Town Awaits Groundhog Day". New York Times. 1986-02-02. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
- Yoder, pp. 14–15.
- Yoder, p. i.
- Yoder, p. 43.
- History Society of Berks County, Reading, Pennsylvania.
- The attribution to the "Germans" may be based on some German Bauernregeln (farmers' rules) like this one: Wenn sich der Dachs zu Lichtmeß sonnt, so gehet er wieder auf vier Wochen in sein Loch. (If the badger is in the sun at Candlemas, he will have to go back into his hole for another four weeks. Joseph Arnold Lewenau : Der angewandte Fresenius; oder, Sammlung geordneter allgemeiner Witterungs- und sogenannter Bauernregeln: mit beygefügten Erklärungen ihres Grundes und vernünftigen Sinnes zu einem nützlichen Gebrauch ... vorzüglich beym Betriebe der Landwirthschaft. Vienna: J.G. Mösle, 1823, p. 20.
- Groundhog Day, Margaret Kruesi. Journal of American Folklore. Washington: Summer 2007. Vol. 120, Iss. 477; p. 367+.
- David Park, PhD (2006). "Happy Groundhog Day to You!". Retrieved 2009-02-02.
- Yoder, p. 9.
- Yoder, pp. 19–28.
- Yoder, pp. 29–30.
- Yoder, pp. 30–31.
- Yoder, p. 31.
- Yoder, pp. 33.
- Yoder, pp. 32–33.
- "Groundhog Days Woodstock IL". Awaketowoodstock.com. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- Shoestring Solutions. "All About General Beau Lee of the Yellow River Game Ranch". Yellowrivergameranch.com. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- Colleges in the Midwest: Compare Colleges in Your Region (24 ed.). Peterson's. 2009. p. 298. ISBN 9780768926903. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- . Retrieved 2013-02-11.
- "Happy Groundhog Day, Colorado-style". DenverPost.com. 2013-02-02.
- "Winnipeg Willow predicts an early spring on Groundhog Day, while Manitoba Merv says more winter to come". CTV Winnipeg. February 2, 2013.
- Gomez, Luis (February 2, 2013). "Potomac Phil Predicts an Early Spring and More Political Gridlock". Borderstan.
- "Murray’s meaning". Cumberland Times-News. February 2, 2013.
- "Photos: Octorara Orphie predicts more winter". WGAL. February 2, 2013.
- "Groundhog Day: Local groundhogs disagree with Punxsutawney Phil, say more winter". The Evening Sun. February 2, 2013.
- Marchiano, Amy (February 3, 2013). "Pine Grove's Grover: 6 more weeks of winter". The Republican-Herald.
- Local groundhog: Spring on the way Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- Dunkirk Dave predicts early spring. Dunkirk Observer. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- "Michigan’s Official Groundhog ‘Woody’ Predicts An Early Spring". CBS Detroit. February 2, 2013.
- Samenow, Jason (February 2, 2013). "Groundhog Day 2013: No shadow for Punxsutawney Phil, so spring is around the corner". The Washington Post.
- "Michigan’s Official Groundhog Predicts An Early Spring". WKBD-TV CBS Detroit. 2012-02-02.
- The Diesel predicts Michigan will early spring. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- African, American concur with six more weeks of winter prediction. WCBC. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Spring is here to stay, says Asheville's groundhog, Nibbles. Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Needham, Nick. Queen Charlotte sees shadow, 6 more weeks of winter. WBTV. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Sir Walter Wally, Mortimer disagree about spring again. Raleigh News Observer. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Chattanooga Chuck predicts warm, wet weather. Nooga.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Uni's close call: 6 more weeks of winter. Lebanon Daily News. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Groundhogs Predict Fate Of Winter; Punxsutawney Phil Joined By Others In Valley. WGAL. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Groundhog Day 2012. WTRF. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- Groundhog Day 2012. Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- Groundhog Day 2012. National Post. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "Spring's Right Around the Corner". Hastingstribune.com. 2012-02-02. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- Georgia's groundhog predicts early spring. Athens Banner-Herald. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Octoraro Orphie predicts an early spring. LancasterOnline.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Dunkirk Dave predicts early spring. WKBW-TV. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- DeRosa, Ronald (February 2, 2012). "POLL: Punxsutawney Phil Vs. Chuck". Naugatuck Patch.
- Bilstad, Erik (2012). "Milwaukee's Groundhog Did Not See Shadow". Today's TMJ 4. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Argento, Mike. Is winter over? The local groundhogs say yes, Phil says six more weeks. York Daily News. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Groundhog's Forecast: More Winter". KBOI. February 2, 2012.
- "GroundHogDay update". CFTR 680 News Toronto. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Groundhog Day: Quebec groundhog disagrees with Shubenacadie Sam, Wiarton Willie. The Gazette (montrealgazette.com). Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- General Beauregard Lee's official Twitter. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Malverne Mel predicts six more weeks of winter. Malverne-West Hempstead (Patch.com). Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Holtsville Hal, Malverne Mel disagree on winter. Newsday. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- . Mansfield News Journal. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Groundhog Day 2012: Staten Island Chuck predicts early spring. Staten Island Advance. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- . Global Maritimes. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "No matter what, there will be weather". Hudson Register-Star. 2011-02-03.
- Schrock, Jeff (2011-02-02). French Creek Freddie Predicts Early Spring for 2011. The State Journal. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- Snow even too much for Willie the groundhog. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Athens’ groundhog emerges to predict spring. The Red and Black. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Octorara Orphie sees 6 more weeks of winter. Lancaster Online. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Winter's not over yet. CFCN-TV. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Sir Walter Wally predicts more winter. WTVD. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Chimney Rock groundhog doesn't see his shadow. Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Soper, Kym (2011-02-02). No shadow! Chuckles predicts early spring at Lutz. Journal-Inquirer. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Dover Doug Delivers Groundhog Report. York Daily Record. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Malverne Mel Bids Grizzly Winter Early Goodbye. Malverne-WestHempstead Patch. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Holtsville Hal predicts long winter on Groundhog Day. Long Island Press. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Groundhog makes prediction. Lebanon Daily News (2011-02-02). Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Wiarton Willie predicts early spring. Toronto Star. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Henzl, Ann-Elise (February 2, 2011). "Believe it or not, Groundhog Predicts Early Spring". WUWM.
- WCBC. 2011 http://www.wcbcradio.com/?option=com_content&task=view&id=19924&Itemid=35
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved February 3, 2013.
- Groundhog Day 2011: It's an early spring! Staten Island Chuck did not see his shadow. Staten Island Advance (2011-02-02).
- Seitz, Colleen (February 2, 2011). "No shadows for Buckeye Chuck and Punxsutawney Phil mean early spring". WEWS.
- Carey, Elizabeth (2011-02-02). "Groundhogs call for spring as storm flops".
- "General Beau Lee Doesn't See Shadow; Predicts Early Spring!". Yellow River Game Ranch. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- "Punxsutawney Phil Calls For An Early Spring". KDKA.com. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- Vanhoose, Joe (2010-02-03). Furry forecaster sees early spring
- Spring almost here, Orphie says. Lancaster Newspapers. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- Sir Walter Wally, Punxsutawney Phil disagree on winter's end. Raleigh News Observer (2010-02-02).
- "Groundhog Central". Groundhog Central. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "Groundhog Day 2008 at the Yellow River Game Ranch!". Yellowrivergameranch.com. 2010-02-02. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "Smith Lake Jake Visits Wake-Up!" Wake up, Alabama!, CBS42, February 2, 2010
- Staten Island Chuck makes his Groundhog Day prediction. Staten Island Advance (2010-02-02).
- "Northwest Herald | Woodstock Willie: An early spring is coming". Nwherald.com. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- The Canadian Press: Mix of cheers and groans as Wiarton Willie predicts six more weeks of winterdead link
- Snyder, Steve (2010-02-02). Uni's forecast: Early spring. Lebanon Daily News. Retrieved 2010-02-05.
- Official Dunkirk Dave site Though he did see his shadow, it was invalidated because of artificial lighting.
- "Weather-Predicting Groundhogs Don’t Agree". WCMH-TV. 2010-02-02.
- "Alberta's Balzac Billy disagrees with Ontario's Wiarton Willie" Canada.com, February 2, 2002
-  Charleston Daily Maildead link
- "N.C. Groundhog, Hog Differ On Winter Weather Outlook – News Story – WSOC Charlotte". Wsoctv.com. 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "West Virginia Headline News and Talk Radio". Wvmetronews.com. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "Buckeye Chuck Makes Prediction: 6 More Weeks". NBC4i.com. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "Groundhog bites Bloomberg at ceremony; on LI, Holtsville Hal sees shadow; Malverne Mel does not". Newsday. New York. 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "Woodstock Willie: Bundle up; more winter ahead". Daily Herald. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "Sun Prairie Chamber Of Commerce: Groundhog Day". Sunprairiechamber.com. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "LancasterOnline.com:News:Orphie says: Button up!". Articles.lancasteronline.com. 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- Staten Island Chuck predicts spring is near. Staten Island Advance news alert. February 2, 2009.
- "No surprises as Wiarton Willy and pals predict more winter". London Free Press. 2009-02-02.
- "Groundhog Predicts More Winter Weather". Associated Press. 200-02-02.dead link
- Dunkirk Dave predicts early spring. Dunkirk Observer news alert. February 2, 2009.
- "Groundhog Predicts More Winter Weather". Associated Press. 2008-02-02.dead link
- "Wisconsin's Jimmy the groundhog predicts an early spring". WBAY-TV. Associated Press. 2008-02-03.
- West, Shirley (2008-02-03). "Early spring? Dunkirk Dave says yes!". Dunkirk Observer.
- "Canada's groundhogs agree: Spring's coming early". CTV. 2008-02-02.
- Stradling, Richard. "2008-02-03". The News & Observer.
- Lytle, Steve (2008-02-02). "Charlotte's groundhog sees shadow". The Charlotte Observer.
- "Past Predictions". 2011-02-02.
- "An early spring, says Malverne Mel". Newsday. 2008-02-02.
- "Buckeye Chuck Fails to See Shadow". WCMH. 2008-02-02.
- Phillips, David. "Groundhog Day". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada.
- Groundhog Day History. Stormfax Weather Almanac.
- "Groundhog Forecasters versus the U.S. Temperature Record". NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- Groundhog Day (1993)
- "The spiritual power of repetitive form: Steps toward transcendence in Groundhog Day." Suzanne Daughton, Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Annandale: Jun 1996. Vol. 13, Iss. 2; p. 138, 17 pgs
- The Associated Press. "Alaska to celebrate its first Marmot Day," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. Feb. 1, 2010. Accessed Feb. 1, 2010.
- Cohen, H.; Coffin, T. P. (1987). The Folklore of American Holidays. Detroit: Gale Research.
- Yoder, Don (2003). Groundhog Day. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0029-1.
- Aaron, Michael A., Brewster B. Boyd, Jr., Melanie J. Curtis, Paul M. Sommers (January 2001). "Punxsutawney's Phenomenal Phorecaster". The College Mathematics Journal, 32(1):26–29. doi:10.2307/2687216.
- Old, W. C., and P. Billin-Frye (2004). The Groundhog Day Book of Facts and Fun. Morton Grove, IL: Albert Whitman.
- Pulling, A. F. (2001). Around Punxsutawney. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia.
- Groundhog Day – The Official Website of the Punxsatawney Groundhog Club
- Short Punxsutawney Groundhog Day Documentary: "A Holiday for Everyone"
- Groundhog Days in Woodstock, IL
- Wiarton Willie Festival – Wiarton, Ontario, Canada